The files available here describe how water, power, and other lifeline systems have performed in actual earthquakes, 1906 - 2002

San Francisco, M 7.9 1906. Impact of the 1906 earthquake on the Spring Valley Water Company. File size 8.5 MB. SF_1906.pdf

Bhuj, India, M 7.4 2001. Pump stations collapsed, elevated concrete tanks collapsed, many well failures. File size 0.8 MB. Bhuj_M7.4_2001.pdf

Loma Prieta, California M 6.9 1989, San Francisco 1906. How the City of Santa Clara and San Francisco water systems performed in 1906 and 1989. File size 0.8 MB. 1906-2006.pdf

Kobe, Japan M 6.9, 1995. Up to 1,700 pipe repairs just in Kobe. Many fires. File size 0.5 MB. Kobe M 6.9 1995.pdf

Izmit, Turkey, M 7.4 1999. The 87-inch Thames water pipeline leaked due to 3 meters of right lateral fault offset. File size 1.2 MB. Turkey M 7.4 1999.pdf


Napa, California M 5.2, 2000. Smallish earthquake damaged 23 water pipes. Rapid recovery. File size 0.3 MB. Wake up call for the 2014 Napa earthquake? NAPA_2000a.pdf

Peru, M 8.4 2001. Massive subduction Zone earthquake modestly damaged distant water systems and canals, tsunami. File size 1.3 MB. Peru_M8.4_2001.pdf

Denali, Alaska M 7.9 2002. The 48-inch Alyeska oil pipeline survived 14 feet of right lateral offset. Updated June 15 2005. File size 1.6 MB. Denali_M7.9.pdf